Development of Lithium Titanate Ceramic for the Test Blanket Module (TBM) in Fusion Reactor

By: Sahu, Bhabani SankarContributor(s): Mazumder, Ranabrata [Supervisor] | Department of Ceramic EngineeringMaterial type: TextTextLanguage: English Publisher: 2010Description: 82 pSubject(s): Engineering and Technology | Ceramic Engnieering | NanocompositesOnline resources: Click here to access online Dissertation note: Thesis (M.Tech (R))- National Institute of Technology, Rourkela Summary: Lithium - based ceramic, Li 2 TiO 3 , is being considered as promising solid breeder materials in the tritium breeding blanket of thermonuclear fusion reactors, because of its reasonable lithium atom density, prominent tritium release rate at low tempe ratures between 200 and 400 o C , its low activation characteristics , low thermal expansion coefficient, high thermal conductivity. For tritium recovery purpose samples having 85 - 90% of true density with open porosity (around 5% ) is required . Uniform small gr ain size distribution ( having diameter between 2 - 4μm ) is preferable as activation energy for tritium diffusion through grain is higher compared to grain boundary . Solid state method requires higher calcination temperature , producing coarser particle and im purity, which adversely affects in achieving high sintered density (above 85% of theoretical density) and form s large grain size with entrapped closed pore inside the grain . In the current work Li 2 TiO 3 powder was synthesized by solution combustion techniq ue using cheaper precursor of titanium i.e. TiO 2 . We found that by controlling the citrate to metal ratio and pH of the solution , phase purity can be achieved in as burnt powder. We observed that phase purity and powder morphology depends on the citrate to metal ratio and pH of the solution. The particle size of Li 2 TiO 3 powder (prepared at C/M=1 and pH=1) was found to be 100 - 200 nm and surface area was 62 m 2 /g. It was found that Li 2 TiO 3 powder can be sintered at a temperature as low as 900 o C with a density more than 90% of the theoretical density. The thermal expansion behavior was i nvestigated by thermo dilatomete ry of sintered specimens in air atmosphere. Thermal diffusivity measured by laser flash method. Thermal conductivity value depends on the density of the sample. AC impedance method has been used to characterize electrical property of the sintered sample as tritium diffusion is related to the Li + ion conductivity in Li 2 TiO 3 . Impedance data, measured on sample of small grained Li 2 TiO 3 ceramics, showed differences for different sintering temperature in air which is doubtless an effect of the variation in microstructure. Neutron activation studies have been done on Li 2 TiO 3 powder to find out whether impurity content in the breeder material absorbing the n eutrons and forming any long lived activation product .
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Thesis (Ph.D/M.Tech R) Thesis (Ph.D/M.Tech R) BP Central Library
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Thesis (M.Tech (R))- National Institute of Technology, Rourkela

Lithium
-
based ceramic, Li
2
TiO
3
, is being considered as promising solid breeder materials in
the tritium breeding blanket of thermonuclear fusion reactors,
because of its
reasonable lithium
atom density,
prominent tritium release rate at low tempe
ratures between 200 and 400
o
C
,
its
low activation characteristics
, low thermal expansion coefficient, high thermal conductivity.
For tritium recovery purpose samples having 85
-
90% of
true density
with open porosity
(around
5%
)
is required
. Uniform
small
gr
ain size distribution
(
having diameter between 2
-
4μm
)
is
preferable as
activation energy for
tritium diffusion through grain is
higher compared
to grain boundary
.
Solid state
method requires
higher calcination temperature
,
producing
coarser particle and im
purity, which adversely affects in achieving high sintered density (above
85% of theoretical density)
and
form
s
large grain size
with
entrapped closed pore inside the
grain
.
In the current work
Li
2
TiO
3
powder was synthesized by solution combustion techniq
ue using
cheaper precursor of titanium i.e. TiO
2
.
We found that by controlling the citrate to metal ratio
and pH of the solution
,
phase purity can
be
achieved in as burnt powder.
We observed that
phase purity and powder morphology depends on the citrate to
metal
ratio
and pH of the
solution.
The particle size of Li
2
TiO
3
powder (prepared at C/M=1 and pH=1) was found to be
100
-
200 nm and surface area was 62 m
2
/g. It
was
found that Li
2
TiO
3
powder can be sintered at
a temperature as low as 900
o
C with a density
more than 90% of the theoretical density.
The
thermal expansion behavior was i
nvestigated by thermo dilatomete
ry of sintered specimens in
air atmosphere. Thermal diffusivity measured by laser flash method. Thermal conductivity
value depends on the density
of the sample.
AC impedance method has been used to
characterize electrical property of the sintered sample as tritium diffusion is related to the Li
+
ion conductivity
in Li
2
TiO
3
. Impedance data, measured on sample
of small grained
Li
2
TiO
3
ceramics, showed
differences for different sintering temperature in air which is
doubtless an effect of the variation in microstructure.
Neutron activation studies have been
done on Li
2
TiO
3
powder to find out whether impurity content in the breeder material absorbing
the n
eutrons and forming any long lived activation product
.

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