Solubilization and Biodegradation of Naphthalene in Presence of Sapindus Mukorossi − Synthetic Mixed Surfactant Systems

By: Rao, K JagajjananiContributor(s): Paria, Santanu [Supervisor] | Department of Chemical EnineeringMaterial type: TextTextLanguage: English Publisher: 2009Description: 111 pSubject(s): Engineering and Technology | Chemical Engineering | SurfactantsOnline resources: Click here to access online Dissertation note: Thesis (M.Tech (R))- National Institute of Technology, Rourkela Summary: Solubilization efficiencies of naphthalene by micellar solution of a plant–based surfactant extracted from fruit of Sapindus mukorossi (Reetha), and the synthetic surfactants like nonionic (TritonX–100 or TX–100), cationic (Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide or CTAB), anionic (Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate or SDBS; Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate or AOT; Sodium octanesulfonate or SOS) in their singl e and as well binary mixed (plant – synthetic) systems were measured and compar ed. The solubilization efficiency of single surfactants followed the order TX-100 > CTAB > Reetha = SDBS > AOT > SOS. The mixed surfactant systems s how negative deviation in molar solubilization ratio (MSR) from the ideality. The ascending order of % change in MSR ( ∆ MSR ) are TX–100 – Reetha < CTAB – Reetha < SDBS – Reetha < AOT – Reetha < SOS – Reetha. The mixed micellar solution for a particular com bination also exhibits ∆ MSR is more negative when interaction parameter for the mixed mic elle ( β ) is more negative. For the above mixtures mixed micellization and interaction of surf actant molecules were examined. Mixed critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) were obtained from surface tensiometry as well as from solubilization experi ments. The mixed micellar compositons and the estimation of interacting forces were determine d on the basis of a regular solution model along with thermodynamic potentials of micel lization. The CMCs were reduced, although not substantial, and synergistic behaviour of the Reetha with synthetic surfactants was observed. The interaction parameter β for the mixed micellar system was calculated using regular solution model to see the nonide ality of the system. The negative value of β for different Reetha – synthetic mixed surfactants systems indicate there is a synergistic effect in the mixed micellar system s. The bioavailability and biodegradation of naphthalene was studied with Re etha, TX–100, CTAB, SDBS, and the mixture of these synthetic surfactants with Reetha. Biodegradation of naphthalene was more in the presence of surfactant m ixtures indicate x more bioavailability to microorganisms. Two mixed culture’s (known c ulture (KC) and unknown culture (WWC)) naphthalene degrading ability in the presence of surfactants (pure/mixtures) were tested. Naphthalene biodegradation is explained with the help of growth rate constants (K g ), naphthalene degradation rate constants (K), surfactant (pure/mixtures) utilization (by % change in surface tension), a nd with zeta potential values of the microbes in surfactant combinations. Naphthalene degraded was more in CTAB, SDBS - Reetha mixtures and less in case of TX-100 - Ree tha mixtures, while the order is opposite in mixed surfactant utilization. Addition of Reetha to the synthetic surfactants TX-100, CTAB and SDBS proved to be more beneficial to WW C than KC. Utilization of naphthalene along with surfactants (pure/mixtures) also explained and mixed micellar concentrations above critical micelle concentrat ion were not toxic to the microorganisms used. Zeta potential for mixed cultures was monitore d for surfactants (pure/mixtures) and its relation to K values explained. The results of this study may be useful for the applications of natural or natural – synthetic mixed systems in surfactant enhanced remediation and degradation.
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Thesis (M.Tech (R))- National Institute of Technology, Rourkela

Solubilization efficiencies of naphthalene by micellar solution of
a plant–based surfactant
extracted from fruit of
Sapindus mukorossi
(Reetha), and the synthetic surfactants like
nonionic (TritonX–100 or TX–100), cationic (Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide
or
CTAB), anionic (Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate or SDBS; Dioctyl sodium
sulfosuccinate or AOT; Sodium octanesulfonate or SOS) in their singl
e and as well
binary mixed (plant – synthetic) systems were measured and compar
ed. The
solubilization efficiency of single surfactants followed the order
TX-100 > CTAB >
Reetha = SDBS > AOT > SOS. The mixed surfactant systems s
how negative deviation in
molar solubilization ratio (MSR) from the ideality. The ascending
order of % change in
MSR (

MSR
) are TX–100 – Reetha
<
CTAB – Reetha
<
SDBS – Reetha
<
AOT – Reetha
< SOS – Reetha. The mixed micellar solution for a particular com
bination also exhibits

MSR
is more negative when interaction parameter for the mixed mic
elle (
β
) is more
negative.
For the above mixtures mixed micellization and interaction of surf
actant
molecules were examined. Mixed critical micelle concentrations
(CMCs) were obtained
from surface tensiometry as well as from solubilization experi
ments. The mixed micellar
compositons and the estimation of interacting forces were determine
d on the basis of a
regular solution model along with thermodynamic potentials of micel
lization. The CMCs
were reduced, although not substantial, and synergistic behaviour of the
Reetha with
synthetic surfactants was observed. The interaction parameter
β
for the mixed micellar
system was calculated using regular solution model to see the nonide
ality of the system.
The negative value of
β
for different Reetha – synthetic mixed surfactants systems
indicate there is a synergistic effect in the mixed micellar system
s.
The bioavailability and biodegradation of naphthalene was studied with Re
etha,
TX–100, CTAB, SDBS, and the mixture of these synthetic surfactants
with Reetha.
Biodegradation of naphthalene was more in the presence of surfactant m
ixtures indicate
x
more bioavailability to microorganisms. Two mixed culture’s (known c
ulture (KC) and
unknown culture (WWC)) naphthalene degrading ability in the presence of
surfactants
(pure/mixtures) were tested. Naphthalene biodegradation is explained
with the help of
growth rate constants (K
g
), naphthalene degradation rate constants (K), surfactant
(pure/mixtures) utilization (by % change in surface tension), a
nd with zeta potential
values of the microbes in surfactant combinations. Naphthalene degraded
was more in
CTAB, SDBS - Reetha mixtures and less in case of TX-100 - Ree
tha mixtures, while the
order is opposite in mixed surfactant utilization. Addition of Reetha
to the synthetic
surfactants TX-100, CTAB and SDBS proved to be more beneficial to WW
C than KC.
Utilization of naphthalene along with surfactants (pure/mixtures)
also explained and
mixed micellar concentrations above critical micelle concentrat
ion were not toxic to the
microorganisms used. Zeta potential for mixed cultures was monitore
d for surfactants
(pure/mixtures) and its relation to K values explained. The results
of this study may be
useful for the applications of natural or natural – synthetic mixed
systems in surfactant
enhanced remediation and degradation.

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